Selasa, 30 Juli 2013

Modals For Prediction and Speculation, in English/ Kata modal Prediksi dan spekulasi, dalam bahasa Inggris

Modals For Prediction and Speculation, in English

(Source: Astuti, Eka Mulya.2010. English Zone. Jakarta: PenerbitErlangga.)

To predict or speculate about something you can use the following modals:

Ø  Will-will not
Ø  Might-might not
Ø  Could-could not

Pay attention to the following tables.
Prediction (Present and Future Uncertainty)

Very certain
100% degree of certainty
Uncertain
Less certain
Very uncertain
0% degree of certainty
Polar bears will disappear.
Polar bears may disappear.
Polar bears may not disappear.
Polar bears are going to disappear.
Polar bear might disappear.
Polar bear might notdisappear.

Polar bear could disappear.
Polar bear could not disappear.

*it is doubtful that polar bears will survive.


*it is unlikely that polar bears will survive.


* “doubtful” and “unlikely” can also be used to show uncertainty.

Reflection-speculation (past uncertainty)
Very certain
Reflection
Uncertain
speculation
Uncertainty negative
Speculation
Dinosaurs perished due to a meteor strike.
Dinosaurs may have died from dieses.
They may not have had resistance to disease.

Dinosaurs might have died from starvation.
They might not have had enough to eat.

Dinosaurs could have died from cosmic radiation.
They might not have had shelter from radiation.

The modals showing certainty/ uncertainty

Ø  A very certain prediction. The ice break in Antarctica is due to global warming.
Ø  A less certain prediction. We may be the best class (6)
Ø  An uncertain prediction. The sun may rise from the west in the dooms day (9)
Ø  A very certain speculation/ reflection. Krakatau mountain disappeared due to an eruption (17)
Ø  A certain speculation. The bio hazard effect might have been a night mare for our generations (20, but by dimas erda /04)

Ø  An uncertain speculation. The big fload might have caused starvation to the citizens (21)