Jumat, 21 Maret 2014

Diet and Diseases, part 2, in Nurse English/ Diet dan Penyakit, bagian 2, di Keperawatan Bahasa Inggris

Diet and Diseases, part 2, in Nurse English

(Source/ Sumber: Pamudya, Leo A.2004. English for Professional Nurses 1.Jakarta: EPN Consultant.)
(Rewritten by/ Diketik kembali oleh: Dimas Erda Widyamarta, www.ithinkeducation.blogspot.com)

A patient with a peptic ulcer should avoid:
1)      Excessive sour; salty or spicy foods
2)      Coarse foods such as raw vegetables, fruits with seed and skin
3)      Excessive hot drink/ food
4)      Smoking, alcoholic, beverages and aspirin should be avoided
5)      Meat should be in small servings. Try to eat about the same amount at each meal
6)      Peptic ulcer is one disease where proper dietary management is equally or more important than pure drug therapy.

A).  Protein: normal protein requirement of 1g/kg body weight, i.e. about 60 gm should be gicen. Milk proteins will not irritate gastric mucosa. Meat soup increase acidity.

B).  Fats: fat like butter, ghee cheese and cream are helpful whereas fats of fried food articles are difficult to digest and may increase symptoms

C).  Calories: sufficient calories are to be given and vitamin C may be helpful in healing the ulcer.

D).  Diabetes Mellitus: a diabetic should know how to adjust his or her diet in order to keep his or her urine free of sugar. The following food articles should be avoided: sweet drinks and carbonated drinks; dried and canned fruits; cakes, pastries cream and alcoholic drinks; sugar, potatoes.

E).   Carbohydrates: less than 250g should be consumed. But drastic reduction of carbohydrate is forbidden as it might result in excessive metabolism of fat resulting in ketoacidosis.

F).   Calories: the should consume more of green leafy vegetables, which are filling in capacity, low in calorific calue and contain less than 3% carbohydrate.

G).  Proteins: 1 kg of body weight, cheese is a good source of protein. Low consumption of fats will keep the cholesterol level low. High doses of B complex vitamin will avoid the development of diabetic neuritis. Or the minerals, potassium helps in release of insulin from pancreas.

H).  Sweetening agents: saccharine is a coal tar derivative 300 to 500 times sweeter than glucose and does not have any calorific value; sugar free can be used by those obese diabetcs who have a craving for sweets. One tablet provides only 0,4 calorie which is sufficient to sweeten one cup of tea. Surbitol is hydrogenated glucose and is converted into fructose in the body and hence does not cause glycosuria.

I).     Diarrhea: patient should avoid there: deep fry, spicy foods; sweets, dry fruits; chutney, pickes; salad and cellulose containing food.